Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure which means that the blood applies too much force against the walls of the blood vessels. There are around 85 million people in the unites states who are suffering from high blood pressure. According to guidelines issued by the American heart association in November 2017, hypertension defines as blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
This has been stated that causes of hypertension are often not known. Around 1 in every 20 cases of hypertension is the effect of an underlying condition of medication. Chronic kidney disease is a common cause of high blood pressure because kidneys do not filter out fluid, this fluid leads to hypertension.
Factors contributing to Hypertension
There are various risk factors which increase the chances of having hypertension, which are: –
- Age: hypertension is much more common in people aged over 60 years. As one grows old, the possibility of getting afflicted with High Blood pressure increases. This happens due to blood carrying vessels, arteries, narrow down and lose their elasticity. The root cause of being stiff is deposits of plaque along the boundaries. But this lifestyle disease is no longer restricted to 60+ age bands. It is afflicting even 30+ age bands.
- Ethnicity: There are few tribal who are more predisposed to hypertension due to they are genetic built.
- Obesity: Being overweight or obese has become a leading factor in contributing to increasing cases of hypertension.
- Increase in consumption of Alcohol and tobacco: Excess of anything is bad. We have heard it always. And consumption of excessive tobacco in any form or alcohol is also not good for health and its functioning.
- Gender: Studies have shown that men are at a greater risk to be hypertensive in comparison to females at a younger age. But in aged people, it is females who get affected by hypertension more
- Existing health conditions: Common lifestyle disease like heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and high cholesterol levels can be a reason for hypertension, especially in old age
Diagnosis and Symptoms of Hypertension
The instrument to measure blood pressure is a sphygmomanometer or a blood pressure monitor. But giving a final decision on n=being a patient of high blood pressure needs a continuous monitor for some time. There are few situations which can lead to a spike in blood pressure, but there is no need to panic. Do take readings twice a day (morning and evening) before raising an alarm.
As per AHA guidelines, the following are the latest guidelines on blood pressure reading that is accepted across the world.
- Normal blood pressure: systolic (mmHg) less than 120 and diastolic (mmHg) less than 80
- Elevated: systolic (mmHg) between 120 and 129 and diastolic (mmHg) less than 80
- Stage 1 hypertension: systolic(mmHg) between 130 and 139 and diastolic (mmHg) less than 80
- Stage 2 hypertension: systolic(mmHg) at least 140 and diastolic(mmHg) at least 90
- Hypertensive crisis: systolic(mmHg) over 180 and diastolic (mmHg) over 120
If the reading shows a hypertensive crisis when taking blood pressure, wait 2 or 3 minutes and then repeat the test. If the reading is the same or higher, then this is a medical emergency.
Hypertension, often called a silent killer because the one suffering from hypertension may not notice any symptoms. And, while undetected it can cause damage to the cardiovascular system and internal organs, such as the kidneys. Now, as we know that hypertension doesn’t have any symptoms so it must check it regularly is a must.
Long-term hyperextension can cause complications through atherosclerosis, where the formation of plaque results in the narrowing of blood vessels. The heart has to work harder to pump blood into the body. Hypertension-related atherosclerosis can lead to heart failures and heart attacks, an aneurysm, kidney failure, stroke, amputation and hypertensive retinopathies in the eye, which can lead to blindness.
Treatment of Hypertension
Tested and tried ways to overcome lifestyle diseases like hypertension is making changes in lifestyles and dietary choices. We have been hearing this loud everywhere, reject the sedentary lifestyle and go for any physical activity in your life. Reduce the intake of alcohol & tobacco. Most importantly cut down on sodium intake and increase fiber in the diet.
Average salt intake should be between 9 grams and 12 grams per day in most countries around the world. The WHO recommends intake of salt under 5g a day to help decrease the risk of hypertension and related health problems. This can benefit both with and without hypertension, but to those with high blood pressure will benefit the most.
Since ancient times, there is a Number 1 food which fights against Lifestyle Diseases like Heart Attack, Hypertension and Cholesterol – Dates. In comparison to dry fruits, it is loaded with much in demand minerals, and that too all natural. Though the fruit Dates is considered high on calories it compensates with one of the highest percentages of much-needed minerals like potassium and magnesium, dietary fiber and fatty acids with minimal sugar and highest antioxidant.
Dietary Regulations for Hypertension
Lifestyle adjustment is the standard first-line treatment for hypertension. There are various to control hypertension so one should follow them to get rid of it. One is regular physical exercise and the other is stress reduction. So, in regular physical exercise, they follow the current guidelines which recommend that each week people with hypertension engage 150 minutes of moderate aerobic intensity exercise or 75 minutes a week of vigorous exercise. Activities like jogging, cycling, or swimming should be done at least 5 days a week. Then, in stress reduction, one should develop strategies for managing unavoidable stress or simply avoiding it can help in controlling blood pressure. Sometimes, people think that by engaging in alcohol, drugs, or smoking they can control their stress but actually they are adding their hypertensive problem. Smoking can raise blood pressure so giving it up reduces the risk of hypertension conditions and other health issues.
Another method is by medication, people having blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 may use medication to treat hypertension.